Purpose: The cytotoxicity of a range of commercial antiglaucoma ophthalmic solutions was assessed in human corneal endothelial cells using in vitro techniques.
Methods: Cell survival was measured using the WST-1 assay for endothelial cells and the MTT assay for epithelial cells. Commercially available timolol, carteolol, latanoplast, unoprostone, levobunolol, bunazosine, betaxolol, nipradiol, dorzolamide, brinzolamide, and pilocarpine were assessed. The survival of cells exposed to test ophthalmic solutions was expressed as a percentage of cell survival in the control solution (distilled water added to media) after 48 hours exposure.
Results: Survival was lower in prostagrandines and in medications containing benzalkonium. It increased to more than 85% after dilution of 1000-fold or more dilution.
Conclusions: Antiglaucoma ophthalmic solutions have corneal endothelial toxicity. The toxicity significantly decreases after dilution of 1000-fold or more dilution and toxicity seems to be due mostly to benzalkonium chloride.