A prospective case-control study was conducted to determine the association between Campylobacter jejuni infection and childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome in the Indian population. We found evidence of recent Campylobacter jejuni infection in 27.7% of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, as compared with 2.3% in neurological controls (P = .003) and 2.3% in nonneurological controls (P = .003). Of the 15 patients with Campylobacter jejuni infection, 8 (53.3%) reported having had diarrhea within 12 weeks before the onset of the neurologic illness. Our results suggest association between recent Campylobacter jejuni infection and bulbar weakness (P = .043). No statistical difference was observed between the Campylobacter jejuni positive and negative groups with respect to age, other clinical features, albuminocytological dissociation, and residual paralysis at follow-up. It is concluded that subclinical Campylobacter jejuni infection is an important antecedent illness in childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome in the Indian population.