An ultrasoft X-ray multi-microbeam irradiation system for studies of DNA damage responses by fixed- and live-cell fluorescence microscopy

Eur Biophys J. 2009 Jul;38(6):721-8. doi: 10.1007/s00249-009-0472-7. Epub 2009 Jun 3.


Localized induction of DNA damage is a valuable tool for studying cellular DNA damage responses. In recent decades, methods have been developed to generate DNA damage using radiation of various types, including photons and charged particles. Here we describe a simple ultrasoft X-ray multi-microbeam system for high dose-rate, localized induction of DNA strand breaks in cells at spatially and geometrically adjustable sites. Our system can be combined with fixed- and live-cell microscopy to study responses of cells to DNA damage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • DNA / radiation effects*
  • DNA Damage / radiation effects*
  • DNA Repair*
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry / methods
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence / methods
  • X-Rays*


  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • DNA