Surveillance for influenza is essential for the selection of influenza vaccine components and detection of human infections with novel influenza A viruses that may signal the start of a pandemic. Virologic surveillance provides the foundation from which this information can be obtained. However, morbidity and mortality data are needed to better understand the burden of disease, which, in turn, can provide useful information for policy makers relevant to the allocation of resources for prevention and control efforts. Data on the impact of influenza can be used to identify groups at increased risk for severe influenza-related complications, develop prevention and control policies, and monitor the effect of these policies. Influenza surveillance systems frequently monitor outpatient illness, hospitalizations, and deaths, but selection of influenza surveillance components should be based on the surveillance goals and objectives of the jurisdiction.