Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are toxic at high levels in the mammalian cells. Mammalian cells have developed many enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidative systems in various cellular compartments to maintain an appropriate level of ROS and regulate their action. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), a family of peroxidase that reduced intracellular peroxides (one type of ROS) with the thioredoxin system as the electron donor, were highly expressed in various cellular compartments. In this minireview, we discussed the regulation of Prxs expression in cancer cell and its relationship with ionizing radiation. As Prxs could be induced by radiation and its expression status could determine the radiosensitivity of cancer cells, Prxs might be a potential target for radiotherapy in cancer.