Perspective: proteomic approach to detect biomarkers of human growth hormone

Growth Horm IGF Res. 2009 Aug;19(4):399-407. doi: 10.1016/j.ghir.2009.04.018. Epub 2009 Jun 4.


Several serum biomarkers for recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) have been established, however, none alone or in combination have generate a specific, sensitive, and reproducible 'kit' for the detection of rhGH abuse. Thus, the search for additional GH specific biomarkers continues. In this review, we focus on the use of proteomics in general and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in particular for the discovery of new GH induced serum biomarkers. Also, we review some of the protocols involved in 2-DE. Finally, the possibility of tissues other than blood for biomarker discovery is discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Biomarkers / chemistry*
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Doping in Sports
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional / methods
  • Genomics / methods
  • Human Growth Hormone / blood*
  • Human Growth Hormone / chemistry*
  • Humans
  • Mass Spectrometry / methods
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Proteins / chemistry
  • Proteomics / methods*
  • Skin / metabolism
  • Substance Abuse Detection / methods*


  • Biomarkers
  • Proteins
  • Human Growth Hormone