Effects of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquids on the antioxidant defense system of Daphnia magna

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2009 Sep;72(6):1798-804. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2009.05.002. Epub 2009 Jun 5.


This study examined the antioxidant responses of Daphnia magna following exposure to different concentrations of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and the 50% LC(50) concentrations of methylimidazolium bromide ILs with different alkyl-chain lengths. Activities of antioxidant defense enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase) and levels of the antioxidant glutathione and the lipid peroxidation by-product malondialdehyde were measured using traditional methods or commercial kits. The concentration and the alkyl-chain length of ILs were found to strongly influence the antioxidant system of D. magna following IL exposure, and exposure to higher IL concentrations and to ILs with longer alkyl chains generally increased the enzyme activities and biomarker levels examined. Therefore, the present study suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the mechanism of IL-induced toxicity in D. magna.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Borates / toxicity
  • Catalase / metabolism
  • Daphnia / drug effects*
  • Daphnia / enzymology*
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Hydrocarbons, Brominated / chemistry
  • Hydrocarbons, Brominated / toxicity*
  • Imidazoles / toxicity
  • Ionic Liquids / chemistry
  • Ionic Liquids / toxicity*
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Toxicity Tests, Acute


  • 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium
  • Antioxidants
  • Borates
  • Hydrocarbons, Brominated
  • Imidazoles
  • Ionic Liquids
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Catalase
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Glutathione