Retinal horizontal cells: challenging paradigms of neural development and cancer biology

Development. 2009 Jul;136(13):2141-51. doi: 10.1242/dev.033175.

Abstract

A group of retinal interneurons known as horizontal cells has recently been shown to exhibit a variety of unique biological properties, as compared with other nerve cells, that challenge many long-standing assumptions in the fields of neural development and cancer biology. These features include their unusual migratory behavior, their unique morphological plasticity, and their propensity to divide at a relatively late stage during development. Here, we review these novel features, discuss their relevance for other cell types, outline open questions in our understanding of horizontal cell development and consider their implications.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Movement / physiology
  • Cell Shape
  • Eye Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Eye Neoplasms / pathology
  • Eye Proteins / genetics
  • Eye Proteins / metabolism
  • Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism
  • Neurons / cytology
  • Neurons / physiology*
  • Retina* / cytology
  • Retina* / growth & development
  • Retinal Horizontal Cells / cytology
  • Retinal Horizontal Cells / physiology*
  • Retinoblastoma / metabolism
  • Retinoblastoma / pathology
  • Stem Cells / cytology
  • Stem Cells / physiology
  • Transcription, Genetic

Substances

  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Eye Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • NeuroD protein