Routine offering of HIV testing to hospitalized pediatric patients at university teaching hospital, Lusaka, Zambia: acceptability and feasibility

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Jun 1;51(2):202-8. doi: 10.1097/qai.0b013e31819c173f.


Objectives: The difficulties diagnosing infants and children with HIV infection have been cited as barriers to increasing the number of children receiving antiretroviral therapy worldwide.

Design: We implemented routine HIV antibody counseling and testing for pediatric patients hospitalized at the University Teaching Hospital, a national reference center, in Lusaka, Zambia. We also introduced HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for early infant diagnosis.

Methods: Caregivers/parents of children admitted to the hospital wards were routinely offered HIV counseling and testing for their children. HIV antibody positive (HIV+) children <18 months of age were tested with PCR for HIV DNA.

Results: From January 1, 2006, to June 30, 2007, among 15,670 children with unknown HIV status, 13,239 (84.5%) received counseling and 11,571 (87.4%) of those counseled were tested. Overall, 3373 (29.2%) of those tested were seropositive. Seropositivity was associated with younger age: 69.6% of those testing HIV antibody positive were <18 months of age. The proportion of counseled children who were tested increased each quarter from 76.0% in January to March 2006 to 88.2% in April to June 2007 (P < 0.001). From April 2006 to June 2007, 1276 PCR tests were done; 806 (63.2%) were positive. The rate of PCR positivity increased with age from 22% in children <6 weeks of age to 61% at 3-6 months and to 85% at 12-18 months (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Routine counseling and antibody testing of pediatric inpatients can identify large numbers of HIV-seropositive children in high prevalence settings. The high rate of HIV infection in hospitalized infants and young children also underscores the urgent need for early infant diagnostic capacity in high prevalence settings.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Caregivers
  • Child, Preschool
  • Counseling
  • DNA, Viral / blood
  • Female
  • HIV Antibodies / blood
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis*
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Informed Consent
  • Male
  • Parents
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Zambia / epidemiology


  • DNA, Viral
  • HIV Antibodies