Clinical and neurocognitive predictors of functional outcome in bipolar euthymic patients: a long-term, follow-up study

J Affect Disord. 2010 Feb;121(1-2):156-60. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.05.014. Epub 2009 Jun 7.


Objective: To identify clinical and neurocognitive predictors of long-term functional outcome in patients with bipolar disorder

Methods: A total of 32 subjects who met criteria for bipolar I or II disorder were recruited from the Barcelona Bipolar Disorder Program and were assessed clinically and neuropsychologically at baseline. After an average 4-year follow-up, they were interviewed with the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) to assess functional outcome. Multivariate analyses were applied to identify clinical and neurocognitive predictors of functional outcome.

Results: The main regression model for predictors of overall psychosocial functioning identified subclinical depressive symptoms (beta=0.516, t=3.51, p=0.002), and free delayed recall in a verbal memory task (beta=-0.314, t=-2.144, p=0.041), accounting for 36% of the variance. Specific predictors of occupational functioning were, again, subthreshold depression (beta=0.435, t=2.8, p=0.009) and a measure of executive function, digits backwards (beta=-0.347, t=-2.23, p=0.034). This model explained around 28% of the variance (corrected R(2)=0.28; F=6.38, gl=2, p=0.004).

Conclusions: Subdepressive symptomatology together with neurocognitive impairments related to verbal memory and executive functions are predictor variables of long-term functional outcome in bipolar disorder.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Affect* / drug effects
  • Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use
  • Antimanic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bipolar Disorder / diagnosis*
  • Bipolar Disorder / drug therapy
  • Bipolar Disorder / psychology
  • Cognition Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Cognition Disorders / drug therapy
  • Cognition Disorders / psychology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Lamotrigine
  • Lithium Carbonate / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Mental Recall / drug effects
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuropsychological Tests / statistics & numerical data
  • Prognosis
  • Psychometrics
  • Social Adjustment
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Triazines / therapeutic use
  • Valproic Acid / therapeutic use


  • Anticonvulsants
  • Antimanic Agents
  • Triazines
  • Lithium Carbonate
  • Valproic Acid
  • Lamotrigine