Lipoxygenase (LO) enzymes catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid (AA) into biologically active lipid mediators. Two members, 12/15-LO and 5-LO, regulate inflammatory responses and have been studied for their roles in atherogenesis. Both 12/15-LO and 5-LO inhibitors have been suggested as potential therapy to limit the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Here we used a genetic strategy to disrupt both 12/15-LO and 5-LO on an apolipoprotein E (apoE) atherosclerosis-susceptible background to study the impact of dual LO blockade in atherosclerosis and inflammation. Resident peritoneal macrophages are the major cell type that expresses both LO enzymes, and we verified their absence in dual LO-deficient mice. Examination of AA conversion by phorbol myristate acetate-primed and A23187-challenged macrophages from dual LO-deficient mice revealed extensive accumulation of AA with virtually no diversion into the most common cyclooxygenase (COX) products measured (prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2). Instead the COX-1 by-products 11-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and 15-HETE were elevated. The interrelationship between the two LO pathways in combination with COX-1 inhibition (SC-560) also revealed striking patterns of unique substrate utilization. 5-LO- and dual LO-deficient mice exhibited an attenuated response to zymosan-induced peritoneal inflammation, emphasizing roles for 5-LO in regulating vascular permeability. We observed gender-specific attenuation of atheroma formation at 6 months of age at both the aortic root and throughout the entire aorta in chow-fed female dual LO-deficient mice. We propose that some of the inconsistent data obtained with single LO-deficient mice could be attributable to macrophage-specific patterns of altered AA metabolism.