Recently, two cases of renal disease were observed in which there was an abnormal accumulation of lipids, "lipoprotein thrombi," in the glomerular capillary lumen. This disease has been designated as lipoprotein glomerulopathy. Four other cases have been diagnosed independently by renal histology in other clinical laboratories. All six patients showed proteinuria (1.6 to 10 g/d), normal lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, type III hyperlipoproteinemia-like lipoprotein profiles, and significantly (P less than 0.01) higher levels of plasma apolipoprotein (apo) E (greater than 10 mg/dL) compared with the control patients with hyperlipidemic nephrotic syndrome without lipoprotein thrombi and type IIb hyperlipoproteinemia without renal disease. Lipoprotein glomerulopathy is not familial type III hyperlipoproteinemia (dysbetalipoproteinemia), because apolipoprotein E3 is present. Apo E isoforms were all rare: five cases of E2/3 and one case of E4/4. These results suggest that excessive apo E is associated with apo E isoform and lipoprotein metabolic derangement in such a renal disease. Further studies are needed on the relationship between the apo E hyperlipoproteinemia and the formation of lipoprotein thrombi.