P50, N100, and P200 auditory sensory gating could reflect mechanisms involved in protecting higher-order cognitive functions, suggesting relationships between sensory gating and cognition. This hypothesis was tested in 56 healthy adults who were administered the paired-click paradigm and two adaptations of the continuous performance test (Immediate/Delayed Memory Task, IMT/DMT). Stronger P50 gating correlated with fewer commission errors and prolonged reaction times on the DMT. Stronger N100 and P200 gating correlated with better discriminability on the DMT. Finally, prolonged P200 latency related to better discriminability on the IMT. These findings suggest that P50, N100, and P200 gating could be involved in protecting cognition by affecting response bias, behavioral inhibition, working memory, or attention.