Due to the increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) under treatment with TNF-alpha-inhibitors for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases, precautionary measures are required before initiating TNF-alpha-inhibitor therapy. Patients should have active TB ruled out and screening for latent TB infection should be performed. The screening should include chest X-ray, complete medical history, and the administration of a highly specific Interferon-gamma-Release Assay (IGRA). As tuberculin skin test (TST) results can be expected to be either false-positive or false-negative in these patients, the TST, as commonly performed in the past, is recommended only for exceptional situations. For chemopreventive treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI), isoniazid is usually given for 9 months.