Arterial and mixed venous blood acid-base balance during hypoperfusion with incremental positive end-expiratory pressure in the pig

Anesth Analg. 1991 Nov;73(5):576-82.


The authors sought to determine how hypoperfusion influences acid-base balance in arterial and mixed venous blood. In anesthetized, ventilated pigs (n = 12), we determined hemodynamics, O2 uptake, CO2 output, dead-space ventilation, arterial and mixed venous blood acid-base balances, and lactate concentrations during graded reductions in cardiac output by incremental positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, 0-20 cm H2O). Cardiac output decreased from 3.2 +/- 0.2 (mean +/- SEM) to 1.2 +/- 0.1 L/min at 20 cm H2O PEEP. Oxygen delivery declined more than O2 uptake did by 60% +/- 2% and 27% +/- 2%, respectively. The decrease in CO2 output (by 21% +/- 2%) was less than that in O2 uptake. Fractional dead-space ventilation increased. At a slight increase in carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) of 4 +/- 1 mm Hg, pH decreased in arterial blood from 7.54 +/- 0.01 to 7.47 +/- 0.02 mmol/L, and standard bicarbonate decreased from 30.3 +/- 0.5 to 27.5 +/- 0.6 mmol/L. The decrease in standard bicarbonate exceeded the increase in blood lactate concentrations. At a similar decrease in standard bicarbonate, the decrease in pH was larger (P less than 0.005) in mixed venous blood than in arterial blood owing to a larger increase in PCO2 (from 40 +/- 2 to 50 +/- 2 mm Hg, P less than 0.005). The changes were reversed after discontinuing PEEP. The authors conclude that ischemia after incremental PEEP results in tissue metabolic acidosis with superimposed respiratory acidosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MeSH terms

  • Acid-Base Equilibrium*
  • Animals
  • Carbon Dioxide / metabolism
  • Cardiac Output
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Male
  • Oxygen / blood
  • Positive-Pressure Respiration*
  • Swine


  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Oxygen