Persistent infection with HPV 16 and 18 has been causally associated with the development of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions as well as with other carcinomas and their precursors, e.g. some vulvar and vaginal cancers. Furthermore HPV 6 and 11 are responsible for anogenital condylomata acuminata in more than 90% of cases. With the recently developed prophylactic bivalent (HPV 16 and 18) and quadrivalent (HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18) vaccines, it is possible to prevent infection of the cervical epithelium and other squamous epithelia, the development of premalignant lesions and, in the case of the quadrivalent vaccine, the development of condylomata acuminata. The following paper represents a summary of the full-text version of the German evidence-based Guidelines, including all evidence-based recommendations regarding the safety as well as the efficacy of the vaccines in preventing CIN, VIN/VaIN, genital warts and other HPV-associated lesions.