Different pathologies of the central and peripheral nervous system show sex differences in their incidence, symptomatology and/or neurodegenerative outcome. These include Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, stroke, autism, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders and peripheral neuropathy. These sex differences reveal the need for sex-specific neuroprotective strategies. This review article and other manuscripts published in this issue of Hormones and Behavior analyze possible sex-specific therapeutic strategies based on neuroactive steroids. In particular in our introductory article, the possibility that sex differences in the levels or in the action of neuroactive steroids may represent causative factors for sex differences in the incidence or manifestation of pathologies of the nervous system is considered.
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