Individual human phenotypes in metabolic space and time

J Proteome Res. 2009 Sep;8(9):4264-71. doi: 10.1021/pr900344m.


Differences between individual phenotypes are due both to differences in genotype and to exposure to different environmental factors. A fundamental contribution to the definition of the individual phenotype for clinical and therapeutic applications would come from a deeper understanding of the metabolic phenotype. The existence of unique individual metabolic phenotypes has been hypothesized, but the experimental evidence has been only recently collected. Analysis of individual phenotypes over the timescale of years shows that the metabolic phenotypes are largely invariant. The present work also supports the idea that the individual metabolic phenotype can also be considered a metagenomic entity that is strongly affected by both gut microbiome and host metabolic phenotype, the latter defined by both genetic and environmental contributions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Metabolomics / methods*
  • Middle Aged
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular / methods
  • Peptide Mapping / methods
  • Phenotype*
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Proteins / analysis
  • Proteins / metabolism*
  • Proteinuria / urine
  • Time Factors


  • Proteins