The home represents an important source of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke for non-smokers, including children, who live with smokers. Our goal is to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with the adoption of smoking bans in "smoker households" in Quebec. Selected associations are compared with three other Canadian provinces (Ontario, British Columbia and Nova Scotia). This is a cross-sectional study involving 2648 respondents. Logistic regression analysis is employed. Few smoker households in Quebec (21%) have a ban on smoking; the presence of a non-smoker is strongly linked to the existence of such a ban; the presence of a child under the age of 6 is less strongly associated with the adoption of a ban in Quebec than in the other provinces, and the presence of an adolescent shows no association whatsoever. In addition to the child health benefits of household smoking bans, greater emphasis should be placed on the impact that such bans can have on children's future smoking behaviour. One option from a health promotion standpoint might be to organize a campaign aimed at non-smokers who live with smokers, in order to urge them to be less tolerant of environmental tobacco smoke.