Galanin microinjection into the PreBötzinger or the Bötzinger Complex terminates central inspiratory activity and reduces responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in rat

Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2009 Jul 31;167(3):299-306. doi: 10.1016/j.resp.2009.06.003. Epub 2009 Jun 13.


Respiratory rhythm is generated and shaped by the synaptic interaction of neurons in the Bötzinger Complex (BötC) and PreBötzinger Complex (PreBötC) located in the ventral respiratory column of the medulla. Metabotropic receptors are important modulators of fast neurotransmission in the generation and shaping of respiratory rhythm. Microinjection of the neuropeptide galanin (1mM, 50 nL, 50 pmol) into functionally identified BötC or PreBötC in urethane anesthetized, mechanically ventilated and vagotomized rats caused severe dysrhythmia or persistent apnea. In the BötC and PreBötC, galanin reduced the ventilatory response to hypercapnia (5% CO(2)) by 21% (P<0.001) and 38% (P<0.01) respectively. In the BötC and PreBötC, galanin reduced the ventilatory response to hypoxia (10% O(2)) by 15% (P<0.05) and 23% (P<0.01) respectively. These results indicate that microinjection of galanin into the BötC or PreBötC depresses a neural substrate required for the generation of respiratory motor output and reflex responses to hypercapnea and hypoxia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Galanin / administration & dosage
  • Galanin / pharmacology*
  • Glutamic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Hypercapnia / physiopathology*
  • Hypoxia / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Medulla Oblongata / physiology*
  • Microinjections
  • Neural Pathways / physiology
  • Phrenic Nerve / physiology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Respiratory Mechanics / drug effects*
  • Vagotomy


  • Glutamic Acid
  • Galanin