Common themes in the design and function of bacterial effectors

Cell Host Microbe. 2009 Jun 18;5(6):571-9. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2009.04.008.


Central to the biology of many pathogenic bacteria are a number of specialized machines, known as type III, type IV, or type VI protein secretion systems. These machines have specifically evolved to deliver bacterial effector proteins into host cells with the capacity to modulate a variety of cellular functions. The identification of the biochemical activities of many effector proteins, coupled with a better understanding of their potential contribution to pathogenesis, has revealed common themes in the evolutionary design and function of these remarkable bacterial proteins.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria / pathogenicity*
  • Bacterial Physiological Phenomena*
  • Bacterial Proteins / chemistry
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics*
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions*
  • Models, Molecular
  • Virulence Factors / chemistry
  • Virulence Factors / genetics*
  • Virulence Factors / metabolism*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Virulence Factors