Tumor hypoxia directly promotes genomic instability and facilitates cell survival, resulting in tumors with a more aggressive phenotype. The proto-oncogene pim-1 regulates apoptosis and the cell cycle by phosphorylating target proteins. Overexpression of Pim-1 can cause genomic instability and contribute to lymphomagenesis. It is not clear whether Pim-1 is involved in hypoxia-mediated tumor survival in solid tumors. Here, we show that hypoxia can stabilize Pim-1 by preventing its ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation and can cause Pim-1 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Importantly, overexpression of Pim-1 increases NIH3T3 cell transformation exclusively under hypoxic conditions, suggesting that Pim-1 expression under hypoxia may be implicated in the transformation process of solid tumors. Also, blocking Pim-1 function by introduction of dominant negative Pim-1 resensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to apoptosis induced by glucose-deprivation under hypoxia. Introduction of short interfering RNAs for Pim-1 also resensitizes cancer cells to glucose deprivation under hypoxic conditions, while forced overexpression of Pim-1 causes solid tumor cells to become resistant to glucose deprivation. Moreover, dominant negative Pim-1 reduces tumorigenicity in pancreatic cancer cells and HeLa xenograft mouse models. Together, our studies indicate that Pim-1 plays a distinct role in solid tumor formation in vivo, implying that Pim-1 may be a novel target for cancer therapy.