Selection of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Quality of Genotypes Used in Genomic Evaluation of Dairy Cattle in the United States and Canada

J Dairy Sci. 2009 Jul;92(7):3431-6. doi: 10.3168/jds.2008-1758.


Nearly 57,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) were investigated to determine usefulness of the associated SNP for genomic prediction. Genotypes were obtained for 12,591 bulls and cows, and SNP were selected based on 5,503 bulls with genotypes from a larger set of SNP. The following SNP were deleted: 6,572 that were monomorphic, 3,213 with scoring problems (primarily because of poor definition of clusters and excess number of clusters), and 3,649 with a minor allele frequency of <2%. Number of SNP for each minor allele frequency class (> or =2%) was fairly uniform (777 to 1,004). For 5 contiguous SNP assigned to chromosome 7, no bulls were heterozygous, which indicated that those SNP are actually on the nonpseudoautosomal portion of the X chromosome. Another 178 SNP that were not assigned to a chromosome but that had many fewer heterozygotes than expected were also assigned to the X chromosome. Existence of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was investigated by comparing observed with expected heterozygosity. For 11 SNP, the observed percentage of heterozygous individuals differed from the expected by >15%; therefore, those SNP were deleted. For 2,628 SNP, the genotype at another SNP was highly correlated (i.e., genotypes were identical for >99.5% of bulls), and those were deleted. After edits, 40,874 SNP remained. A parent-progeny conflict was declared when the genotypes were alternate homozygotes. Mean number of conflicts was 2.3 when pedigree was correct and 2,411 when it was incorrect. The sire was genotyped for >93% of animals. Maternal grandsire genotype was similarly checked; however, because alternate homozygotes could be valid, a conflict threshold of 16% was used to indicate a need for further investigation. Genotyping consistency was investigated for 21 bulls genotyped twice with differences primarily from SNP that were not scored in one of the genotypes. Concordance for readable SNP was extremely high (99.96-100%). Thousands of SNP that were polymorphic in Holsteins were monomorphic in Jerseys or Brown Swiss, which indicated that breed-specific SNP sets are required or that all breeds need to be considered in the SNP selection process. Genotypes from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip are of high accuracy and provide the basis for genomic evaluations in the United States and Canada.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Canada
  • Cattle / genetics*
  • Dairying / methods*
  • Female
  • Genome / genetics*
  • Genotype
  • Male
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics*
  • United States