Neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with efavirenz: prevalence, correlates, and management. A neurobehavioral review

AIDS Rev. Apr-Jun 2009;11(2):103-9.


The non-nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz is one of the most common components of HAART. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are frequently reported in patients taking efavirenz-based regimens. These symptoms are usually transient, although they can sometimes persist for up to two years after initiation of treatment. This review describes in detail the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms related to efavirenz, outlines relevant and recent findings on this agent, and suggests possible interventions based on neurobehavioral results. Different recommendations on the assessment of efavirenz-related adverse events are also provided.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alkynes
  • Anti-HIV Agents / adverse effects*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • Benzoxazines / adverse effects*
  • Benzoxazines / therapeutic use
  • Cyclopropanes
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV-1 / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Disorders* / chemically induced
  • Mental Disorders* / epidemiology
  • Mental Disorders* / physiopathology
  • Mental Disorders* / therapy
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / adverse effects*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use


  • Alkynes
  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Benzoxazines
  • Cyclopropanes
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  • efavirenz