Discovery of a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) modulator with balanced PPARalpha activity for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia

J Med Chem. 2009 Jul 23;52(14):4443-53. doi: 10.1021/jm900367w.


A series of 3-acylindole-1-benzylcarboxylic acids were designed and synthesized while searching for a PPARgamma modulator with additional moderate intrinsic PPARalpha agonistic activity. 2-[3-[[3-(4-Chlorobenzoyl)-2-methyl-6-(trifluoromethoxy)-1H-indol-1-yl]methyl]phenoxy]-(2R)-butanoic acid (12d) was identified as such an agent which demonstrated potent efficacy in lowering both glucose and lipids in multiple animal models with significantly attenuated side effects such as fluid retention and heart weight gain associated with PPARgamma full agonists. The moderate PPARalpha activity of 12d not only contributed to the agent's ability to manage lipid profiles but also appears to have potentiated its PPARgamma efficacy in lowering glucose levels in preclinical diabetic animal models.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Butyric Acid / chemical synthesis
  • Butyric Acid / chemistry
  • Butyric Acid / pharmacology
  • Butyric Acid / therapeutic use
  • Cell Line
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Cricetinae
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Dogs
  • Drug Discovery*
  • Dyslipidemias / blood
  • Dyslipidemias / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Indoles / chemistry
  • Male
  • Mice
  • PPAR gamma / agonists*
  • PPAR gamma / metabolism*
  • Rats
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Blood Glucose
  • Indoles
  • PPAR gamma
  • Butyric Acid
  • Cholesterol