Epidemiological studies of the non-specific effects of vaccines: II--methodological issues in the design and analysis of cohort studies

Trop Med Int Health. 2009 Sep;14(9):977-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02302.x. Epub 2009 Jun 15.


We review sources of bias which can affect non-randomized cohort studies of non-specific effects of vaccines on child mortality. Using examples from the literature on non-specific effects, we describe different sources of selection and information bias, and, where possible, outline analysis strategies to mitigate or eliminate such biases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bias*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies*
  • Forms and Records Control
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Medical Records*
  • Vaccination / mortality*
  • Vaccines* / adverse effects


  • Vaccines