A culturally sensitive study of premenstrual and menstrual symptoms among Chinese women

J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2009 Jun;30(2):105-14. doi: 10.1080/01674820902789241.


This is a two-part study of perimenstrual symptomatology in Chinese women. We developed and validated the Chinese Questionnaire of Perimenstrual Symptoms (CQ-PERI-MS), which was adapted from the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire, and used this instrument to assess the prevalence and nature of perimenstrual symptoms among Chinese women in Hong Kong. The initial CQ-PERI-MS was first administered to a sample of 538 menstruating Chinese women in Hong Kong together with measures of anxiety, depression and neuroticism. Psychometric analyses rendered a 32-item CQ-PERI-MS which demonstrated good reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and factorial validity. Four factors were yielded, namely, Dysphoria, Somatic distress, Cognitive problems and Arousal. The CQ-PERI-MS was then administered to a separate sample of 339 menstruating Chinese women in Hong Kong for further examination of validity as well as pattern of perimenstrual symptoms. It was found that perimenstrual symptoms were common, with 18.6% and 34.2% of the participants reporting 10 or more premenstrual and menstrual symptoms, respectively. Both premenstrual and menstrual distress were characterised by a combination of emotional and somatic symptoms. Contrary to previous preconceptions, perimenstrual symptoms are commonly experienced by Chinese women, with both overlapping and distinct features when compared with patterns in the West.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anxiety / ethnology
  • Anxiety / psychology
  • Asians / psychology*
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison*
  • Depression / ethnology
  • Depression / psychology
  • Female
  • Hong Kong
  • Humans
  • Menstruation Disturbances / ethnology*
  • Menstruation Disturbances / psychology
  • Middle Aged
  • Neurotic Disorders / ethnology
  • Neurotic Disorders / psychology
  • Personality Inventory / statistics & numerical data
  • Premenstrual Syndrome / ethnology*
  • Premenstrual Syndrome / psychology
  • Psychometrics / statistics & numerical data
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult