Four inbred strains of mice, DBA/2J, C57BL/10J, BALB/cJ, and SJL/J, were mated in a diallel cross. The cerebella of the F1 generation were examined for the presence (Type I) or absence (Type II) of an intraculminate fissure between vermian lobule IV and vermian lobule V (the ventral and dorsal lobules of the culmen). One strain (DBA/2J) consistently expressed the Type I pattern. Another strain (SJL/J) expressed predominantly the Type II pattern. The other two strains (C57BL/10J and BALB/cJ) and many of the hybrids exhibited variability in their expression of the foliation patterns. The results were analyzed using biometrical genetic procedures and showed significant additive and dominance genetic effects and a maternal effect. Correlations of these cerebellar anatomical variants with the development of behavior are discussed.