Epidemiology of open-globe injuries in Iran: analysis of 2,340 cases in 5 years (report no. 1)

Retina. 2009 Sep;29(8):1141-9. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0b013e3181a395ac.


Purpose: To review characteristics of open-globe injuries presented to Farabi Eye Hospital, a large referral center for serious ocular injury in the capital city of Iran.

Patients and methods: A retrospective review of 2,340 open-globe injury patients during a 5-year period was performed. Data about any patient that was diagnosed as open-globe injury were collected from medical records.

Results: Of 2,340 patients, 1,904 (81.4%) were men. Mean age was 22.44 +/- 16.65 years (range, 4 months to 90 years). Seventy-five percent of cases were younger than 30 years, with a peak of 5 years. There were 561 patients who had an intraocular foreign body (24.7%). In patients younger than 16 years, a knife was the most prevalent cause (22%); in patients younger than 7 years, knives accounted for 33.6% of trauma etiology; and in patients more than 16 years, a projectile metallic foreign body was the most common cause, accounting for 27% of open-globe injuries. Endophthalmitis developed in 5.1% (117 cases). Factors that had a positive association with severity of ocular injury were visual acuity lower than 20/200 at admission, endophthalmitis, double perforation, and laceration length. According to Ocular Trauma Scoring, there was better visual prognosis in younger age groups, male sex, and intraocular foreign body groups. The rate of enucleation or evisceration was 5.3% (126 cases). We had a low sympathetic ophthalmia rate of 0.08%.

Conclusion: The most prevalent trauma etiology is a projectile metallic foreign body in adults and a knife injury in children. Compared with other previous epidemiologic studies, we had younger patients, lower enucleations, and sympathetic ophthalmia.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Eye Injuries / epidemiology*
  • Eye Injuries / etiology
  • Eye Injuries / surgery
  • Female
  • Hospitals, Urban
  • Humans
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome