The metabolic syndrome is an important public health concern that predisposes individuals to the development of cardiovascular disease and/or Type 2 diabetes. The fructose-fed rat is an animal model of acquired systolic hypertension that displays numerous features of the metabolic syndrome. This animal model is used to study the relationship between insulin resistance/compensatory hyperinsulinemia and the development of hypertension. Several mechanisms have been proposed to mediate the link between insulin resistance and hypertension. In this review, we have addressed the role of sympathetic nervous system overactivation, increased production of vasoconstrictors, such as endothelin-1 and angiotensin II, and prostanoids in the development of hypertension in fructose-fed rats. The roles of nitric oxide, impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation and sex hormones in the pathogenesis of the fructose-fed induced hypertensive rats have also been highlighted. More recently, increased formation of reactive oxygen species and elevated levels of uric acid have been reported to contribute to fructose-induced hypertension.