Most HIV-positive persons in the U.S. smoke cigarettes. Despite substantial clinical advances in HIV care in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-positive persons are at high risk of tobacco-related disease and death. HIV-positive persons have complex social, economic, psychiatric, and medical needs that may impact smoking behavior and response to smoking cessation interventions, but there is a dearth of research on smoking cessation interventions tailored to HIV-positive persons. HIV care providers should treat tobacco use with the array of evidence-based smoking cessation treatments available, updating their clinical practice as new data emerge. This article reviews the literature on the health consequences of tobacco use in HIV-positive persons, the treatment of tobacco dependence, and the research to date on smoking cessation interventions in HIV-positive persons, and it presents recommendations for future research and intervention.