In this review, the current state of vaccine development against human severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, focusing on recently published data is assessed. We discuss which strategies have been assessed immunologically and which have been evaluated in SARS coronavirus challenge models. We discuss inactivated vaccines, virally and bacterially vectored vaccines, recombinant protein and DNA vaccines, as well as the use of attenuated vaccines. Data regarding the correlates of protection, animal models and the available evidence regarding potential vaccine enhancement of SARS disease are discussed. While there is much evidence that various vaccine strategies against SARS are safe and immunogenic, vaccinated animals still display significant disease upon challenge. Current data suggest that intranasal vaccination may be crucial and that new or combination strategies may be required for good protective efficacy against SARS in humans.