The effect of different meals on the absorption of stable isotope-labelled phylloquinone

Br J Nutr. 2009 Oct;102(8):1195-202. doi: 10.1017/S0007114509371688. Epub 2009 Jun 19.


Few studies have investigated the absorption of phylloquinone (vitamin K1). We recruited twelve healthy, non-obese adults. On each study day, fasted subjects took a capsule containing 20 microg of 13C-labelled phylloquinone with one of three meals, defined as convenience, cosmopolitan and animal-oriented, in a three-way crossover design. The meals were formulated from the characteristics of clusters identified in dietary pattern analysis of data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey conducted in 2000-1. Plasma phylloquinone concentration and isotopic enrichment were measured over 8 h. Significantly more phylloquinone tracer was absorbed when consumed with the cosmopolitan and animal-oriented meals than with the convenience meal (P = 0.001 and 0.035, respectively). Estimates of the relative availability of phylloquinone from the meals were: convenience meal = 1.00; cosmopolitan meal = 0.31; animal-oriented meal = 0.23. Combining the tracer data with availability estimates for phylloquinone from the meals provides overall relative bioavailability values of convenience = 1.00, cosmopolitan = 0.46 and animal-oriented = 0.29. Stable isotopes provide a useful tool to investigate further the bioavailability of low doses of phylloquinone. Different meals can affect the absorption of free phylloquinone. The meal-based study design used in the present work provides an approach that reflects more closely the way foods are eaten in a free-living population.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biological Availability
  • Carbon Isotopes
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Food Analysis / methods
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Vitamin K 1 / analysis
  • Vitamin K 1 / blood*
  • Vitamins / analysis
  • Vitamins / blood*
  • Young Adult


  • Carbon Isotopes
  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin K 1