The action of transforming-growth-factor (TGF)-beta following inflammatory responses is characterized by increased production of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, as well as mesenchymal cell proliferation, migration, and accumulation. Thus, TGF-beta is important for the induction of fibrosis often associated with chronic phases of inflammatory diseases. This common feature of TGF-related pathologies is observed in many different organs. Therefore, in addition to the description of the common TGF-beta-pathway, this review focuses on TGF-beta-related pathogenetic effects in different pathologies/organs, i. e., arthritis, diabetic nephropathy, colitis/Crohn's disease, radiation-induced fibrosis, and myocarditis (including their similarities and dissimilarities). However, TGF-beta exhibits both exacerbating and ameliorating features, depending on the phase of disease and the site of action. Due to its central role in severe fibrotic diseases, TGF-beta nevertheless remains an attractive therapeutic target, if targeted locally and during the fibrotic phase of disease.