Objective: To define diagnostic criteria for juvenile cystic adenomyoma (JCA), describe the histologic features of the condition and evaluate laparoscopic excision for treating associated dysmenorrhea and pelvic pain.
Design: Prospective long-term follow-up study.
Setting: University-affiliated hospital.
Patient(s): Nine consecutive patients with JCA.
Intervention(s): Patients meeting the diagnostic criteria for JCA underwent laparoscopic enucleation of the lesion. The severity of dysmenorrhea was evaluated before surgery and every 6 months after surgery. Five patients underwent second-look laparoscopy (SLL) 6 months after surgery.
Main outcome measure(s): Relief of dysmenorrhea as measured by a visual analog scale, postoperative healing at SLL, and subsequent pregnancy when desired by the patient.
Result(s): Laparoscopic enucleation of the cystic adenomyoma resulted in a statistically and clinically significant reduction in dysmenorrhea and improved chronic pelvic pain. Neither cystic adenomyoma nor severe dysmenorrhea recurred during the follow-up period. Adhesions were minimal at SLL. Two of the three patients who desired pregnancy conceived after surgery. The histologic findings of the JCA lesion and adenomyosis were similar, and the endometrial glands and stroma infiltrating the surrounding myometrium in all patients were consistent with the appearance of adenomyosis.
Conclusion(s): We defined the diagnostic criteria for JCA, and demonstrated significant improvement of dysmenorrhea after laparoscopic excision of the lesion.
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