Objective: Cystic fibrosis (CF)-related diabetes (CFRD) diagnosis and management have considerably changed since diabetes was first shown to be associated with a poor prognosis in subjects with CF. Current trends in CFRD prevalence, incidence, and mortality were determined from a comprehensive clinical database.
Research design and methods: Data were reviewed from 872 CF patients followed at the University of Minnesota during three consecutive intervals: 1992-1997, 1998-2002, and 2003-2008.
Results: CFRD is currently present in 2% of children, 19% of adolescents, and 40-50% of adults. Incidence and prevalence are higher in female subjects aged 30-39 years; otherwise, there are no sex differences. In younger individuals, CFRD without fasting hyperglycemia predominates, but fasting hyperglycemia prevalence rises with age. CFRD mortality has significantly decreased over time. From 1992-1997 to 2003-2008, mortality rate in female subjects dropped by >50% from 6.9 to 3.2 deaths per 100 patient-years and in male subjects from 6.5 to 3.8 deaths per 100 patient-years. There is no longer a sex difference in mortality. Diabetes was previously diagnosed as a perimorbid event in nearly 20% of patients, but of 61 patients diagnosed with diabetes during 2003-2008, only 2 died. Lung function but not nutritional status is still worse in CF patients with diabetes compared with those without diabetes. Nutritional status and pulmonary status are similar between patients without fasting hyperglycemia and those with fasting hyperglycemia.
Conclusions: Previously noted sex differences in mortality have disappeared, and the gap in mortality between CF patients with and without diabetes has considerably narrowed. We believe that early diagnosis and aggressive treatment have played a major role in improving survival in these patients.