Reaching every district (RED) approach to strengthen routine immunization services: evaluation in the African region, 2005

J Public Health (Oxf). 2010 Mar;32(1):18-25. doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdp048. Epub 2009 Jun 19.


Background: This evaluation was undertaken in 2005, in the African region, to better understand the reaching every district (RED) implementation process that provides a framework for strengthening immunization services at the district level.

Methods: In June 2005, a convenience sample of five countries was selected to evaluate the implementation of RED. Evaluation teams consisting of key partners conducted site visits to the national, district and health facility levels using standardized qualitative questionnaires.

Results: RED was implemented in a similar manner in all five countries, i.e. starting with training and micro-planning. All RED components were implemented to some degree in the countries. Common implementation factors included development of plans, expanding outreach services (defined as services provided in sites outside fixed immunization sites), planning of supervisory visits and efforts to link with communities and utilize community volunteers. Monitoring tools such as wall charts and maps were observed and reportedly used.

Conclusions: Evaluation of the RED implementation process provided evidence of improvement in delivery of routine immunization services. The RED framework should continue to be used to strengthen the immunization delivery system to meet continuing new demands, such as the introduction of new vaccines and integrated delivery of other child survival interventions.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Africa
  • Health Plan Implementation / organization & administration*
  • Health Promotion
  • Health Resources
  • Health Services Accessibility*
  • Humans
  • Immunization Programs / methods
  • Immunization Programs / organization & administration*
  • Program Evaluation
  • Qualitative Research
  • Regional Health Planning / organization & administration*
  • Rural Health Services
  • Surveys and Questionnaires