Background: We compared risk-adjusted mortality rates between Medicaid-eligible patients in the Medicare Advantage plans ("MA dual enrollees") and Medicaid-eligible patients in the Veterans Health Administration ("VHA dual enrollees").
Methods: We used the Death Master File to ascertain the vital status of 1912 MA and 2361 VHA dual enrollees. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results: The 3-year mortality rates of VHA and MA dual enrollees were 15.8% and 19.0%, respectively. The adjusted HR of mortality in the MA dual enrollees was significantly higher than in the VHA dual enrollees (HR, 1.260 [95% CI, 1.044-1.520]). This was also the case for elderly patients and those from racial/ethnic minority groups.
Conclusions: The VHA had better health outcomes than did MA plans. The VHA's performance is reassuring, given its emphasis on equal access to healthcare in an environment that is less dependent on patient financial considerations.