Anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) or its metabolites participate in energy balance mainly through feeding modulation. In addition, AEA has been found to increase 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation process. In this study, the effect of AEA, R(+)-methanandamide (R(+)-mAEA), URB597, and indomethacin on primary rat adipocyte differentiation was evaluated by a flow cytometry method and by Oil Red-O staining. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blotting analysis were performed in order to study the effect of AEA on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma2, cannabinoid receptors (CBRs), fatty acid amidohydrolase (FAAH), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, during the differentiation process. AEA increased adipocyte differentiation in primary cell cultures in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and induced PPARgamma2 gene expression, confirming findings with 3T3-L1 cell line. CB1R, FAAH, and COX-2 expression was also increased while CB2R expression was decreased. Inhibition of FAAH and COX-2 attenuated the AEA-induced differentiation. Our findings indicate that AEA regulates energy homeostasis not only by appetite modulation but may also regulate adipocyte differentiation and phenotype.