Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice

Phytother Res. 2009 Dec;23(12):1778-83. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2855.


Thylakoids are membranes isolated from plant chloroplasts which have previously been shown to inhibit pancreatic lipase/colipase catalysed hydrolysis of fat in vitro and induce short-term satiety in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to examine if dietary supplementation of thylakoids could affect food intake and body weight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, body weight gain and body fat compared with the high-fat fed control mice. Reduced serum glucose, serum triglyceride and serum free fatty acid levels were found in the thylakoid-treated animals. The satiety hormone cholecystokinin was elevated, suggesting this hormone mediates satiety. Leptin levels were reduced, reflecting a decreased fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and body weight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / drug effects
  • Animals
  • Appetite / drug effects*
  • Appetite Depressants / pharmacology
  • Appetite Depressants / therapeutic use*
  • Blood Glucose
  • Body Weight
  • Chlorophyll / analysis
  • Cholecystokinin / metabolism*
  • Dietary Fats / metabolism*
  • Eating / drug effects*
  • Fatty Acids / blood
  • Female
  • Leptin / blood
  • Lipase / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Satiety Response / drug effects
  • Spinacia oleracea / ultrastructure
  • Thylakoids / chemistry*
  • Triglycerides / blood


  • Appetite Depressants
  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Fats
  • Fatty Acids
  • Leptin
  • Triglycerides
  • Chlorophyll
  • Cholecystokinin
  • Lipase