Australia-wide population-based surveillance for scedosporiosis identified 180 cases, with 118 (65.6%) cases of colonization and 62 (34.4%) cases of infection. Predisposing factors for isolation of Scedosporium spp. included chronic lung disease in 37.8% and malignancy in 21.7% of cases. Predictors of invasive disease (n=62) included haematological stem cell transplantation (n=7), leukaemia (n=16) and diabetes mellitus (n=8). Of 183 phenotypically-speciated isolates, 75 (41%) were Scedosporium prolificans (risk factors: haematologic cancer (n=17), neutropaenia (n=14)) and 108 (59%) had Scedosporium apiospermum/Pseudallescheria boydii phenotype [risk factor: diabetes (n=15)]. Scedosporium prolificans (p 0.01) and leukaemia (p 0.03) independently predicted death. Epidemiological and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Scedosporium aurantiacum (prevalence>or=15.8%) and S. apiospermum were similar. No patient with S. aurantiacum infection (n=6) died. This is the first description of clinical features associated with S. aurantiacum.