Prevalence of micro- and macroalbuminuria, arterial hypertension, retinopathy and large vessel disease in European type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients

Diabetologia. 1991 Sep;34(9):655-61. doi: 10.1007/BF00400995.


The prevalence of micro- and macroalbuminuria was determined in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients, less than 76 years of age, attending a diabetic clinic during 1987. All eligible patients (n = 557) were asked to collect a 24-h urine sample for quantitative albumin analysis. Urine collections were obtained in 296 males and 253 females (96%). Normoalbuminuria were defined as urinary albumin excretion less than or equal to 30 mg/24 h (n = 323), microalbuminuria as 31-299 mg/24 h (n = 151), and macroalbuminuria as greater than or equal to 300 mg/24 h (n = 75). The prevalence of macroalbuminuria was significantly higher in males (20%) than in females (6%), while the prevalence of microalbuminuria was almost identical in males (26%) and females (29%). The prevalence of arterial hypertension increased with increased albuminuria, being 48%, 68%, and 85% in patients with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria respectively. Prevalence of proliferative retinopathy rose with increasing albuminuria, being 2%, 5% and 12% in patients with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria respectively. Prevalence of coronary heart disease, based on Minnesota coded electrocardiograms, was more frequent in patients with macroalbuminuria (46%) compared to patients with microalbuminuria (26%) and patients with normoalbuminuria (22%). Foot ulcers were more frequent in micro- and macroalbuminuric patients, being 13% and 25%, respectively, compared to 5% in patients with normoalbuminuria. This cross-sectional study has revealed a high prevalence of microalbuminuria (27%) and macroalbuminuria (14%) in Type 2 diabetic patients. Patients with raised urinary albumin excretion are characterized by obesity, elevated haemoglobin Alc, increased frequency of arterial hypertension, proliferative retinopathy, coronary heart disease and foot ulcers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

MeSH terms

  • Albuminuria* / epidemiology
  • Blood Pressure
  • Body Mass Index
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / classification
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology*
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / epidemiology
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / physiopathology*
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / epidemiology
  • Diabetic Retinopathy / physiopathology*
  • Europe
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Hypertension / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Time Factors


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Creatinine