Proton beam radiotherapy of uveal melanoma: Italian patients treated in Nice, France

Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009 Jul-Aug;19(4):654-60. doi: 10.1177/112067210901900421.


Purpose: To evaluate the results of 15 years of experience with proton beam radiotherapy in the treatment of intraocular melanoma, and to determine univariate and multivariate risk factors for local failure, eye retention, and survival.

Methods: A total of 368 cases of intraocular melanoma were treated with proton beam radiotherapy at Centre Lacassagne Cyclotron Biomedical of Nice, France, between 1991 and 2006. Actuarial methods were used to evaluate rate of local tumor control, eye retention, and survival after proton beam radiotherapy. Cox regression models were extracted to evaluate univariate risk factors, while regularized least squares algorithm was used to have a multivariate classification model to better discriminate risk factors.

Results: Tumor relapse occurred in 8.4% of the eyes, with a median recurrence time of 46 months. Enucleation was performed on 11.7% of the eyes after a median time of 49 months following proton beam; out of these, 29 eyes were enucleated due to relapse and 16 due to other causes. The univariate regression analysis identified tumor height and diameter as primary risk factors for enucleation. Regularized least squares analysis demonstrated the higher effectiveness of a multivariate model of five risk factors (macula distance, optic disc distance, tumor height, maximum diameter, and age) in discriminating relapsed vs nonrelapsed patients.

Conclusions: This data set, which is the largest in Italy with relatively long-term follow-up, demonstrates that a high rate of tumor control, survival, and eye retention were achieved after proton beam irradiation, as in other series.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Eye Enucleation
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • France
  • Humans
  • Italy
  • Male
  • Melanoma / mortality
  • Melanoma / pathology
  • Melanoma / radiotherapy*
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Protons*
  • Radiotherapy, High-Energy*
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Uveal Neoplasms / mortality
  • Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Uveal Neoplasms / radiotherapy*


  • Protons