Regeneration of muscle fibers, lost during pathological muscle degeneration or after injuries, is mediated by the production of new myofibres. This process, sustained by the resident stem cells of the muscle, the satellite cells, is finely regulated by local cues, in particular by cytokines and growth factors. Evidence in the literature suggests that nerve growth factor (NGF) is involved in muscle fiber regeneration; however, its role and mechanism of action were unclear. We have investigated this issue in in vivo mouse models of muscle regeneration and in primary myogenic cells. Our results demonstrate that NGF acts through its low-affinity receptor p75(NTR) in a developmentally regulated signaling pathway necessary to myogenic differentiation and muscle repair in vivo. We also demonstrate that this action of NGF is mediated by the down-regulation of RhoA-GTP signaling in myogenic cells.