Recent studies have reported that glial cell line-derived growth factor (GDNF) has neurotrophic effects on the central nervous system, and the neural stem cells (NSCs) engrafted in animal models of stroke survive and ameliorate the neurological deficits. In this study, a stable human NSC line overexpressing GDNF (F3.GDNF) was transplanted next to the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) lesion site and a possible therapeutic effect was investigated. F3.GDNF human NSC line was transplanted into the cortex overlying the striatal ICH lesion. ICH was induced in adult mice by the unilateral injection of bacterial collagenase into the striatum. The animals were evaluated for 8 weeks with rotarod and limb placement tests. Transplanted NSCs were detected by beta-gal immunostaining with double labeling of neurofilament, microtubule associated protein-2, glial fibrillary acidic protein or human nuclear matrix antigen (HuNuMA). F3.GDNF human NSCs produced a four times higher amount of GDNF over parental F3 cells in vitro, induced behavioral improvement in ICH mice after brain transplantation and two- to threefold increase in cell survival of transplanted NSCs at 2 and 8 weeks post-transplantation. In F3.GDNF-grafted ICH brain, a significant increase in the antiapoptotic protein and cell survival signal molecules, and a marked reduction in proapoptotic proteins were found as compared with control group. Brain transplantation of human NSCs overexpressing GDNF in ICH animals provided functional recovery in ICH animals, and survival and differentiation of grafted human NSCs. These results indicate that the F3.GDNF human NSCs should be of a great value as a cellular source for the cellular therapy in animal models of human neurological disorders including ICH.