Water-pipe (narguile) smokers in Lebanon: a pilot study

East Mediterr Health J. 2009 Mar-Apr;15(2):432-42.


We carried out a comparative study to assess the demographic and social characteristics of water pipe (WP) smokers, the association with cigarette smoking and chronic respiratory diseases and the dependence profile on 4 groups: exclusive WP smokers, exclusive cigarette smokers, mixed smokers and absolute non-smokers. Cigarette smoking was statistically significantly higher in WP smokers than non-WP smokers; 36.5% of exclusive WP smokers smoked > or =7 WPs/week. Chronic respiratory disease and chronic bronchitis were reported more frequently in exclusive WP smokers than absolute non-smokers. WP smoking seems to be as great a risk factor as cigarette smoking for chronic respiratory disease.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bronchitis* / epidemiology
  • Bronchitis* / etiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Chronic Disease
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • Filtration / instrumentation
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Lebanon / epidemiology
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pilot Projects
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking* / adverse effects
  • Smoking* / epidemiology
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / complications
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / epidemiology
  • Water*


  • Water