The polyomavirus JC (JCV) is the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and of JCV granule cell neuronopathy. We present a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient who experienced development of multiple cortical lesions, aphasia, and progressive cognitive decline after chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer. Brain biopsy and cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction demonstrated JCV, and she had a rapidly fatal outcome. Postmortem analysis showed diffuse cortical lesions and areas of necrosis at the gray-white junction. Immunostaining showed a productive JCV infection of cortical pyramidal neurons, confirmed by electron microscopy, with limited demyelination. This novel gray matter syndrome expands the scope of JCV clinical presentation and pathogenesis.