The maintenance of peroxisome function depends on the formation of the peroxisomal membrane and the subsequent import of both membrane and matrix proteins. Without exception, peroxisomal matrix proteins are nuclear encoded, synthesized on free ribosomes and subsequently imported post-translationally. In contrast to other translocation systems that transport unfolded polypeptide chains, the peroxisomal import apparatus can facilitate the transport of folded and oligomeric proteins across the peroxisomal membrane. The peroxisomal protein import is mediated by cycling receptors that shuttle between the cytosol and peroxisomal lumen and depends on ATP and ubiquitin. In this brief review, we will summarize our current knowledge on the import of soluble proteins into the peroxisomal matrix.