The photomodulation of enzymes involves the activation and inactivation of enzyme reactions by UV and visible light. Enzymes or their reactions may be affected directly or indirectly. Direct effects involve photoproduction of a substrate, photodissociation of an inhibitor, photochemistry of protein amino acids, irradiation of a chromophore and irradiation of an enzyme substrate. Indirect effects involve gene expression, phytochrome and other photoreceptors which are not part of the enzyme, protein synthesis, membranes and photosynthesis. Photoactivation of enzymes is related to photocarcinogenesis, photomorphogenesis of plants, primary effects or side effects of phototherapy, deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) repair and many other aspects of biology and medicine. Model systems may contribute to the knowledge of protein chemistry and medicinal chemistry.