Incidence of Persistent Renal Dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children: Associations With the Use of Antiretrovirals, and Other Nephrotoxic Medications and Risk Factors

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Jul;28(7):619-25. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31819ca49a.


Background: Survival of HIV-infected children continues to increase and the use of antiretrovirals (ARVs) is expanding; however there are few data regarding the incidence of renal dysfunction and associated risk factors among HIV-infected children and youth.

Methods: A total of 2102 children enrolled in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 219/219C, were followed and assessed prospectively for >30 months. Occurrence of clinical events and laboratory abnormalities were recorded using standardized criteria and forms. Therapeutic decisions were made by clinicians at each site. Occurrence of persistent renal laboratory abnormalities was the main outcome measure.

Results: Four hundred forty-six (22%) enrollees exhibited at least one persistent renal laboratory abnormality. Elevated serum creatinine (Cr) was more common than persistent proteinuria (15% vs. 8%). The incidence of new renal laboratory abnormalities was 3.7 events per 100 person-years with rates increasing between 1993 and 2005. Older age (>or=6 years vs. <6 years), Hispanic ethnicity, and Black non-Hispanic race were associated with increased risk of renal dysfunction, but CDC clinical class and plasma HIV RNA levels were not. Subjects exposed to ARV regimens containing tenofovir and/or indinavir had approximately twice the risk of developing renal dysfunction compared with persons exposed to other ARVs. The risk of renal dysfunction was also elevated for other antivirals (hazard ratio = 5.4) and amphotericin B (hazard ratio = 28).

Conclusions: Persistent renal function abnormalities occur frequently in HIV-infected children. Improved survival, Black race and Hispanic ethnicity, and exposure to tenofovir, indinavir, and other antimicrobial agents increase the risk for renal dysfunction. All HIV-infected children should be monitored closely for evidence of renal disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy / chemically induced*
  • AIDS-Associated Nephropathy / epidemiology*
  • Adolescent
  • Anti-HIV Agents / adverse effects*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Young Adult


  • Anti-HIV Agents